Sunday, December 12, 2010

Snowblower, Part 2

Our electric snowblower arrived Thursday, 2 days before the 5th biggest snowfall in the history of the Twin Cities metro area. We couldn't be more proud of its inaugural performance. Watch it throw 20 inches of snow like it thinks it's a gas-powered snow blower.

Nate was also impressed that he could pick it up with one hand and blow out the stairs as well. Can your gas snowblower do that?

Monday, December 6, 2010

The Snow Wins

3 years ago when we bought our house in the middle of winter, Nate and I enthusiastically (okay, maybe I was the only enthusiastic one) dug into the snow in our driveway with a shovel after every snowfall. I told myself how healthy it was to get out and shovel, and how eco-friendly it was to avoid the gas-guzzling snowblower.

Since I'm pregnant this winter, Nate is on full time shovel duty. Needless to say, it took one big snowfall for him to get online and find an eco-friendly snow blowing option.

He placed the order Sunday night. We are excited for the latest electrical addition to our household, a Toro Electric Snowthrower. We have our friends with gas-powered snowblowers on speed dial just in case we need some help getting our new toy out of a snow bank.

31 Weeks

At 31 weeks, people are starting to say things like "you're due when?!" and "you're getting big!" (some people don't beat around the bush) and looking at this picture I now understand why. If you look close you'll also notice my belly button has taken on a life of its own.

I have developed a subtle waddle and some awkward movements in order to change positions from laying to sitting to standing. Can't wait to see what the last two months bring in my physical prowess.

Despite challenges that come with gaining 25 lbs in 8 months (and darn proud of it!), I'm still enjoying the pregnancy. I'm still walking Kobie daily and have added weekly yoga and elliptical machine exercise. All this is in preparation for my latest pregnancy commitment...we turned in the paperwork agreeing to a water birth today. We'll be going all natural for the birth (as long as the rest of the pregnancy and labor go all right). I am still working through some trepidation around a drug-free birth, but I've done a ton of reading and mental and physical preparation, and will have great support from Nate to get through the challenge.

Why would I put myself through this some of my possibly more sane friends have asked? There are many benefits for baby and mom, which I'll let you read about from the American Pregnancy Association. My overwhelming reason, though, is the reviews I've consistently heard about the experience women have when they birth naturally. Both baby and mom come out of labor very alert and very connected. I think this first hour of bonding is such a critical time, and I want to give it the best circumstances I can.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Going Green in Winter

Nate found two more ways to make our house more efficient this winter, and is making improvements as I type. First, he bought a reusable air filter for the furnace. Once it's installed, you just clean it regularly and then reinstall.

Second, he is insulating the hot water pipes. It's just a wrap that looks like a small version of the insulation you'd put around the water heater; wrap it around the pipes and start using less energy to keep the water heated.

Easy changes that will improve our efficiency this winter.

28 weeks and kicking

It's hard to tell, but if you watch close, you can see our little boy moving around. Every time I started recording, he stopped moving.

He kicks once just after halfway through the video, then there's some movement on the left side (my right side) of the video towards the end.

Apologies for the gross, giant, hairy, white belly...winter doesn't do much to improve the looks of a pregnant belly.

Sunday, October 31, 2010

Our Little Speed Bump

To take advantage of the belly, I went to our Halloween party as a speed bump; Nate was a road construction worker.

In green news, our oven busted. My first response was "let's trash it and get a new one." But Nate, always thinking green, suggested we donate it to someone who can fix it. Excellent plan! Anyone know how to fix ovens that don't heat to temperature? We've got an oven for you!

Monday, October 4, 2010

22 Week Belly

Per the request of all my friends in Baltimore, here's the big boy at 22 weeks. I think the belly looks bigger than it feels, until I'm trying to sleep.

He kicks all the time now. Nate got to feel him move last week too, very exciting.

Trying to keep the pregnancy green, my most recent challenge has been cosmetic products. I just got on a kick where I'm freaked out about everything I put on my skin and did a ton of research about alternative face washes, moisturizers, make ups, and body lotions. I used the Skin Deep Cosmetic Database from the Environmental Working Group for a lot of the research. Great information, especially if you want to go extreme in avoiding potentially hazardous personal care products. It can push you to crazy pretty fast though (especially if you are worrying about a developing fetus you can't see), so research with caution, and perhaps consult other experts as well.

Thursday, September 16, 2010

It's a Boy!

We had the 20 week ultrasound today, and everything looked good! The ultrasound technician said he was not bashful at all for the camera, and very cute. We agree! She was generous with the pictures, including a close up of the reason he's a he, but I feel like a bad mom if I post our son's wee wee so if you want to see it, drop me an email! 

Sunday, September 12, 2010

Eating Organic

Ideally, all the food we buy and all the food available would be organic, but this is not the case, and it's an expensive choice to make! Fortunately, not all organic foods are created equal. The following is a list of foods that give you the most bang for your buck when buying organic. These items retain the most pesticides when non-organic, so these are a great place to start buying organic.

  • apples
  • bell peppers
  • blueberries
  • carrots
  • celery
  • cherries
  • coffee
  • imported grapes
  • kale
  • leafy greens
  • meat
  • milk
  • nectarines
  • peaches
  • pears
  • potatoes
  • red raspberries
  • spinach
  • strawberries

The following foods don't contain as mainly pesticides when they reach our table, so if you're on a budget, save your money by going non-organic with these:
  • asparagus
  • avocados
  • bananas
  • broccoli
  • cabbage
  • cauliflower
  • corn
  • eggplant
  • kiwis
  • mangoes
  • onions
  • papaya
  • peas
  • pineapples
  • sweet potatoes
  • watermelon

Sunday, September 5, 2010

Baby Update - 18 weeks

I'm currently 18 weeks pregnant (+4 months) and we've scheduled our ultra sound for September 16. We are planning to find out the gender, so if you want to place your bets, you'll have to do it before then!

Our 16 week appointment was two weeks ago, and everyone is healthy. The baby's heartbeat is 144 beats per minute-so neat to hear! And my belly is measuring right where it's supposed to--and the doctor says it's not big enough to be holding twins, so the Danielson genes haven't affected this pregnancy!

I also gained enough weight since my last appointment. I'd have been shocked if this didn't happen because I've been eating all the time! But this was good news because at my last check up I had lost two pounds, even though I hadn't been getting sick. So when the doctor told me to eat whatever I wanted, I did, and it paid off!

Last week, the urge to shop hit me, mostly because I went back to work this week and none of my work pants fit, so I went to "Bellies and Babies" and "Nine" both maternity consignment shops (consignment shops are a great way to be eco-friendly and thrifty!), and picked up some stretchy-waisted pants. I have to say, I have no desire to go back to pants that don't give; these are the most comfortable pants I've ever worn!

Perhaps the most exciting update is that I've started feeling the baby move. I wasn't sure that's what I was feeling for a while; it would happen so fast and stopped quickly. Then, this week at work I had a bit of caffeine (the cause? perhaps...) and the fluttering in my belly was crazy! It feels like a critter tapping the inside of my stomach. Very cool.

Nate's getting ready for the baby by fixing as many iphones and ipods as he can for his small business, Nate is a Geek; the extra money will come in handy, I'm sure! We also bought a new car since mine was working its way toward the next expensive breakdown. Our new family car is a Toyota Prius. Nate's enjoying getting nearly 60 miles per gallon, and continuing to improve the mileage every fill up. I'm sure the car willhave it's own blog post soon.

We also celebrated our two year anniversary by spending a night in Minneapolis at The W Hotel--it might be the last anniversary we get a mini-getaway like that for a while!

Since this is supposed to be a blog about social responsibility, now is a good time to mention a few of those details as well...

We bought a used organic crib mattress. In addition, we have been trying to obtain used items--thus limiting the waste produced in manufacturing new products for our little one. We also plan to use cloth diapers, but we'll wait until we know the gender to buy those.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Sacrificing Roses

I'll be honest, last year I sprayed the roses every two weeks to deter fungus and hungry bugs. Luckily, the can was empty at the end of the summer, or I'm guessing I would have caved this summer, too. Midspring, I found my rose leaves disappearing as fast as they could grow. It took a while to figure out what was going on, but after much research, I discovered the culprit: sawfly larvae. The little green worms curl up in a ball under the leaf, and when I'm not looking, they devoured the leaves. I googled every option: organic, green, eco-friendly...and every link told me the same thing. The earth-friendly way to get rid of them is to pick them off by hand and squish 'em. Sigh...I love my roses, and I'll pick the stupid worms off every couple days, but I just can't commit to daily worm pickings. So, some of my leaves will be sacrificed to the sawfly. Luckily, the roses are blossoming beautifully, just ignore the leaves please.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Way to Go Rothsay School!

...for participating in their Community Energy Challenge!

Check out their call to action at Make the Change.

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Clothing Exchange

Do your friends have fantastic clothes? A great way to clean out your closet for spring cleaning and avoid shopping when you get the new season itch is to hold a clothing exchange. It's simple, really. Just invite all your friends to bring bags of stuff they find when cleaning out their closets. Provide some mimosas, and start shopping!

The best part is that after everyone has happily found new items for their clothing racks, the rest gets packed up and donated.

Thursday, April 1, 2010

Drip irrigation

The sun has been shining so I've been spending much of my time preparing my garden and lawn, planting, stirring compost, raking...

But today I had to share the highlight. Part of the reason our lawn is a mixture of weeds and dead spots is because we don't like using water. Our sprinklers use several gallons to water the lawn or garden. In light of the new vegetable garden, which will require we give in and use water, we've invested in a system that should help limit some of the waste.

In a mastery of physics, we've elevated our rain barrel and hooked up a drip soaker hose, using the pressure of gravity alone to drip rain water into our garden. Since Nate also demands tools in his life run automatically, we also bought a timer which will help to ensure we don't leave the system dripping away precious rain water.

The major environmental impact of drip irrigation is water conservation. This happens for several reasons:

  • Only roots are watered, which is where the water needs to go.
  • Ground is more evenly watered.
  • Water is not lost to evaporation by being sprayed in the air.
  • Slower rate of application prevents a build up of water, and therefore reduces evaporation.
Hopefully our vegetables will agree that the new system is a valuable investment! 

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Ready for Earth Hour?

Saturday, March 27th, people all over the globe will be participating in Earth Hour, when millions of people around the world will turn out their lights for one hour as a testimony against climate change. Beautiful symbolism--people working together to stand for a greater goal. 

Earth Hour is scheduled from 8:30 to 9:30 in your local time zone.

Saturday, March 20, 2010

How about Genetically Modified Foods?

As I look at our meat and produce consumption, I've begun to wonder about genetically modified foods (GMOs-Genetically Modified Organisms). We have committed to pesticide-free, organic options, but I needed to do more research before making my decision about what to do with the genetic debate.

GMOs are foods that have been modified at a molecular level to contain desired traits (World Health Organization) . The traits are not necessarily selected for their flavor or nutrition, but for the ability to grow food quick, big, and cheap. For example, much of today's corn has been modified in a laboratory to include a gene extracted from a bacterium that is lethal to insect larvae. This saves a step in production and makes farming cheaper.

Certainly, there are economic and social advantages to GMOs. Food can be produced at a greater rate which means we can feed more people cheaper. And more food can survive pests, drought, herbicides, and extreme temperatures. Because of these advantages, farmers can't really afford not to use GMOs-most can't compete without them. In addition, GMOs can be used as medicine, to increase nutritional value, and to clean contaminated soil (Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?)

But I worry about how this scientific modification might impact the natural order. Some of the insect resistant plants can blow pollen onto other plants and inadvertently kill insects-which of course has it's own impact on an interlinked ecosystem. In addition, like some insects have developed resistance to pesticides, they can also become resistant to the genetic modifications. And when it comes to human health, not enough research has been done to demonstrate what the impact to humans might be. Allergies could potentially be exacerbated depending on which genes are used where (like peanut allergies). Some animal studies show possible harm,  but ultimately results are still inconclusive (ActionBioScience).

Finally, there's also the debate over ownership of the GMOs. Because they are engineered in a lab by a company, some companies have copyrighted their modifications, and it is illegal to use them without proper rights and purchasing. In fact, one farmer was sued by such a company for seeds that were growing on his property that he purports he didn't even plant; the seeds had blown off a passing truck. The Canadian Supreme Court ultimately ruled in favor of the company (Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada). The social and economic implications of cases like this will continue to be debated as we continue to grow and develop food.

I try to stick to my priorities when making decisions about what to consume: environment, health, and human rights. According the the World Health Organization, all GMOs on the market today are safe for human consumption. However, just because it's available for consumption doesn't mean it's the gold standard in socially responsible products. So what's my decision about GMOs coming into our house? The jury's still out, and waiting for more research (ActionBioScience). I guess you'll just have to keep following the blog to find out.

Have an opinion about GMOs? Post a comment!

Monday, March 15, 2010

Indoor Greenhouse

I'm a little worried this "social responsibility" blog will turn into "Jodi's Joys of Gardening" if I'm not careful, but I'm so excited for my first real vegetable garden, I just can't help it!

Last week I started broccoli indoors. Within 2 days, seeds had sprouted! Every day I come home from work and they have grown so much. I don't think my husband shares my excitement; when they started growing like weeds I went on and on about the miracle of life, and he just nodded and said, "That's cool." I can only imagine how good food I've grown from seed will taste (I really hope all this work lives up to my fervent expectations).

Today I've started bell peppers, and I'm eagerly anticipating planting tomatoes in a few weeks. As my mom has said, My grandparents would be so proud!

Thursday, March 11, 2010


I love this blog post on Seventh Generation's website. He says all the words I need to tonight.

Sunday, March 7, 2010

The Joys of Composting

Unfortunately, some green goals can become misadventures. After 4 months of worry-free frozen compost, I opened up our bin today to the most horrible smell possible. A year's worth of our food and yard scraps rotting in too much moisture is not the way to start a new spring.

Luckily, all the answers I need are at my fingertips. I googled "my compost stinks" and learned our compost was too wet (I could've guessed that when I looked at last Halloween's pumpkin leaking unknown juices into the bin). I added shredded paper we didn't need from our taxes and left the lid off for a bit. Within an hour, our compost returned to the appropriate earthy smell that will enrich our garden over the summer.

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Updating the Kitchen

Our kitchen has been one of the sore spots in our decor since we first bought our house. After 2 years, we had to do something about it. While it would certainly make a big difference to replace the cupboards entirely (and I really pushed for it for a while), we both agreed that this would not be a very green thing to do since our cupboards are perfectly functional.

We finally agreed that a change of hardware would give us the update we needed. I think you'll agree based on the pictures that the handles on the cabinets were definitely keeping our kitchen locked in the 80s. 

Hardware's not enough of a change for you? Consider refacing the cupboards instead of completely replacing them. It will save you thousands of dollars as well. 

Sunday, February 28, 2010


Had a great day! I volunteered with Feed My Starving Children today. I helped package 684 meals in under 2 hours. That's over 1 year, 9 months worth of food for a child! Each box we filled was made up of nutrient-packed single servings that would guarantee the kids being served a fulfilling meal a day for at least a year. It doesn't sound like much, but these same kids would otherwise just hope to have a meal every 3 days. I will definitely be volunteering with Feed My Starving Children again. I'm so excited to add one more element of social responsibility to my life.

Monday, February 22, 2010

Getting ready for the garden

I got so excited to see seeds at the store this weekend. My big plan this summer is to start a garden. In Minnesota, this means starting the planting season indoors. Since I just planted my first flower garden last spring and have no idea if it will even survive the winter, I guess I'm being a bit presumptuous to assume I should start a vegetable garden before the snow melts.

Despite the possibility that my gardening skills may cause more harm then good, I eagerly walked into Bachman's to buy all things necessary for indoor gardening. I boldly chose a variety of heirloom* and organic seeds without help from staff. As I checked out, I casually asked, "so when should I start these seeds?"

Turns out, I really am overzealous. Of the seeds I selected, only the tomatoes, broccoli, and bell peppers need to be started indoors. And, they don't need to start until at least the end of March. Like I so often did in high school, I guess I started my countdown to summer too early. But in order to hold on to my sunshine bright glimmer of hope, I bought the seeds anyway. Now my indoor garden sits in its packaging in a window, waiting for my gardening countdown to reach 0.

*Heirloom seeds are seeds that have been handed down from generations passed. Often, people save their heirloom seeds from year to year and may hand them down over generations. Over time, many of these cultivars have died out, much like an extinct species. By planting heirloom seeds, gardens are given greater variety and flavor. In addition, genetic diversity (which I view as life-enriching) is protected. And overall, I like the connection to a deep sense of history I get by planting such old varieties of food.

Monday, February 15, 2010

Want to save water?

A cheap way to save water as well as your wallet is to limit how much water you use when you flush. Since we're not in a position to buy a dual flush toilet right now (and it'd be wasteful to get rid of a perfectly good toilet anyway) we limit our water usage by putting a milk jug filled with water in the tank. This limits how full the tank gets, and therefore prevents the bowl from filling too full as well. This also still leaves enough water to...take care of business.

And while I'm on the subject of toilets, I'll take this opportunity to mention we also buy toilet paper made from recycled paper. I thought this would be a tough transition from our cushy Charmin, but it does the job just fine.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Got Snow?

Today's simple tip:

Skip the snowblower. Reduce your carbon footprint and get some exercise. If I can shovel snow onto piles literally as tall as me, I have confidence that you can too!

Sunday, January 31, 2010


Today's tip is simple: recycle.

I have met a number of people who don't recycle, even when it's simple. So if you don't know where to start, just throw your office paper in the paper bin instead of the garbage at work, and you're already reducing your carbon footprint. Simple.

Saturday, January 30, 2010

Global Warming?

It has come to my attention that many people don't believe global warming is happening, or that if it is, it is not problematic. It has also come to my attention that when I try to have intelligent discussions about this issue, I don't have a whole lot to back up my statements...yet. This is my attempt to rectify that situation. After more extensive research, here's what I've learned about global warming.

The first question is, is the planet actually getting warmer? 

According to National Geographic, there are signs of warming all over. Sea levels are rising abnormally, says Gelu Selugiuc. Thicker rings in trees demonstrate hotter growing periods (National Geographic), and those rings are showing us hotter periods in recent years. And an article on ScienceDaily points to studies of sediment layers as further evidence of the increasing temperatures.

In addition, there is truth in numbers. Thomas L. Friedman says in Hot, Flat, and Crowded, "The general agreement among climate experts is that the earth has already warmed on average by 0.8 degrees Celsius (1.44 degrees Fahrenheit) above its level in 1750, with the most rapid rise occurring since 1970 (Friedman, pg. 16)." And while it is true that normal fluctuations in average temperature have occurred naturally, the problem is that our current heat wave is happening at a much faster rate than in the past.

So the planet's hotter. Being from Minnesota, everyone I know talks about moving someplace warmer anyway. Why is a warming Earth bad? 

Environmental Graffiti says there are 5 deadly effects: 1) spreading diseases, 2) increased natural disasters, 3) increased risk of drought and heat waves, 4) economical impacts, and 5) melting polar ice caps. The impact that each of these will have on humanity, not to mention ecosystems and other life, are so far reaching that one blog post won't cut it. Just Google "why is global warming bad?" to get started on your own research.

Basically, I see global warming as a slow (though speeding up) path to disaster. Not for me, but for my future generations. And I am not okay with leaving that legacy to my children.

Got it, it's a problem. Are we sure it's humanity's fault?

Sure, some global warming is normal, and greenhouse gases keep our planet the temperature it's supposed to be. The problem is when greenhouse gases increase unnaturally, our thermal blanket gets too thick and keeps too much heat in. This is what is currently happening. According to National Geographic, by drilling into polar ice sheets, scientists access bubbles which give us a picture of what air quality was like at the time the ice formed. This research has shown that concentrations of greenhouse gases have been steadily increasing since the industrial revolution.

And it is the carbons humans emit that are causing this blanket to thicken, which is why the earth is warming at a faster than normal rate. According to an article by the BBC, things like burning fossil fuels, deforesting, and methane released from agricultural animal waste all contribute to an unhealthy increase in greenhouse gases.

Okay, so humans are causing it. then the only question left to ask is, what do we need to do to fix it?

And from this, we circle back to the first day I started this blog. There are so many things we can do differently in order to stop this, and many other, negative trends. I don't mean that we should go pre-industrial. Technology and research have taken us to new levels of social responsibility if we use them right. We can move forward in a more responsible way by learning from the past.

What can you do on an individual level? Please continue to read our posts. Make your own informed decisions about what you will do to make a positive impact. Start basic-reduce, reuse, recycle. We are just one family making our personal choices to be more responsible. Please post your own comments about what you do to leave the planet a little better. We are always looking for new ways to revolutionize our existence.

Sunday, January 24, 2010

On the List

We are now eagerly anticipating a new addition to our ever greenified household...a Chevy Volt!

Our name is on the waiting list at a local Chevy dealer. We had set a goal when we purchased our last car (in college) that our next car would be a hybrid. We are planning to not only meet our goal but to surpass it within the next year. The Chevy Volt, anticipated to be released in November 2010, runs about 40 miles on pure battery power. When that runs out, the energy to keep going comes from a range-extending gas generator. This will allow us to continue to use vehicles in the same we we always have, but most of the time we will be emitting zero emissions. When we do take longer trips, we will continue to benefit from using gas more efficiently.

Check out the details on Chevy's website.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Fresh Bread!

I'm proud to say I've successfully baked 2 loaves of tasty, fresh, homemade bread. Here we come, preservative free wheat goodness!

My first loaf of white bread tasted wonderfully similar to my grandma's bread. It was amazing toasted with butter and jam. However, Nate and I are wheat bread eaters, so I ventured nervously into the world of wheat bread. It  turned out better than the white!

I tweaked a recipe from The Simple Dollar by using Hodgson Mill Stone Ground Wheat in place of half the flour and honey replaced of sugar.

We finished off the day with a delicious dinner from Angelina's Kitchen in Woodbury. The owner and chef makes homemade, fresh, healthy, and delicious meals that you take and cook at home. Great for the days when you just don't want to cook.

Thursday, January 14, 2010

The New Thing I Learned Today

"Atrazine is one of the most commonly detected pesticides in U.S. ground and surface water. Syngenta Corporation makes and markets atrazine to farmers in the U.S., but not in its home country, Switzerland.
During U.S. EPA’s review of atrazine in 2003, Syngenta held over 50 private, closed door meetings with regulators. As a result of the EPA's approval, atrazine is used in agriculture throughout the Midwest. Now, millions of American families are exposed to this hazardous chemical." -PAN
Want to learn more and do something about this concern? Sign the petition.

Monday, January 11, 2010

Hand Dryer vs Paper Towels

Today I ended the debate I've been having regarding the greener option between the hand dryers or paper towels in public bathrooms.

I've officially made the commitment to use the hand dryers whenever possible. Why? In my research I found that although both have their environmental impacts, the lesser of two evils is the hand dryer. While the hand dryer does use energy, the energy required to make a paper towel and transport it to public buildings as well as the waste created outweigh the hand dryer's environmental impact.

Of course, the greenest options are probably to bring my own reusable towel or just air dry, but come on, this blog is about living a semi-normal lifestyle while going green.

Sunday, January 3, 2010

I am currently reaching the end of Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life by Barbara Kingsolver. What an inspiration! Kingsolver documents a year of her family's life eating purely local foods. I'm now excited for spring when I can begin my own garden and visit the farmer's market (which is open year-round) to support local food producers. Inspired, I restocked our kitchen after 2 empty-pantry weeks with a variety of organic and local foods. We plan to gradually transition to socially responsible foods in order to ease our budget into this new way of eating. It is not greatly expensive, but I do still find myself comparing price per ounce for spinach versus organic spinach and know that our finances aren't quite ready for a full-on transition.

However, the benefits will outweigh the costs significantly. When I think about the chemicals that constantly surround me and the way most food animals are treated, I can't stand the idea of continuing to eat the way I did. 

So my January priorities for socially responsible food include:
  • organic apples (which are mere cents more expensive then non-organic)
  • potatoes (potatoes and apples are some of the most pesticide-contaminated vegetables, even after being washed)
  • grass-finished beef (beef that begin and end their life on a pasture diet)
  • free-range chicken (chicken that are allowed to roam the land and eat more naturally
  • organic and local wheat flour in order to bake bread (how tasty does that sound!? We'll see how it turns out.)
These choices are never easy. I have the advantage of living in an urban area with many shopping choices. The organic section at my grocery store continues to grow, and if that doesn't suffice I can shop elsewhere, such as Angus Meat Market. Ultimately, it feels good to make these choices, however slowly we have to make them. 


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